Glossary of Terms

You can become a Fireworks Expert!


Aerial Repeaters/Cakes –
a firework with one fuse that shoots multiple shots.

Aerial Salute –
a salute that functions as an aerial shell.

Aerial Firework –
a firework product that produces stars or spheres in various color forms in the air.

Aerial Shell –
spherical or cylindrical-shaped firework propelled into the air from a mortar, where it bursts and ignites the contents inside. The most common and well-known type of fireworks.

is an acronym for “Authority Having Jurisdiction.” Generally refers to the fire marshal, local police department, local fire department, or whoever is responsible for regulating and monitoring fireworks in your area.

American Pyrotechnics Association (APA) –
trade association for the fireworks industry.

APA Standard 87-1 –
the Standard for Construction and Approval for Transportation of Fireworks, Novelties, and Theatrical Pyrotechnics.

Ash Can –
another name for a silver salute. True ash cans became illegal in 1966. Legal ash cans today contain only 50 milligrams of flash powder.

Assistant –
a person who works under the supervision of the pyrotechnic operator.

Assortment –
a variety of fireworks sold in a box. Comes in all different sizes, and usually includes aerial repeaters, fountains, spinners, rockets, and firecrackers.

Barge –
water vessel from which fireworks are discharged.

Barrage –
a group of items fired all at once.

Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. The federal agency that regulates the licensing, importation, manufacture, distribution, and storage of 1.3G display fireworks.

Battery –
a group of similar items that is constructed as a single bundle, such as a missile battery.

Black Match –
a type of fuse made by saturating cotton string in black powder that burns quickly manufactured for fireworks.

Black Powder –
a mixture of potassium nitrate, charcoal, and sulfur used for aerial fireworks and flaming balls. The ingredient burns slowly and has no sensitivity to shock. Black powder may also be known as “gun powder”.

Bombette –
an exploding star ejected from a roman candle or fountain. The product has a maximum charge of 130 milligrams of legal consumer fireworks.

Bottle Rocket –
a small rocket that is approximately the size of a standard firecracker, one and one-half inches long with a thin stick attached to it that is approximately 12 inches in length. Bottle rockets can contain a whistle effect and may contain a report (loud bang).

Bouquet –
a floral shaped aerial pattern of stars in a spherical shape.

Branching –
sparks that split up into smaller sparks, which look like a branch.

Break –
a compartment of shell containing effects. Multi-break shells contain many of these compartments which result in several burst in the sky.

Brick –
many bundled packs of firecrackers which resemble red bricks.

Brocade –
Large round display of woven clusters in a bright star shaped burst.


Cake –
a repeating aerial firework consisting of many shots, named after its usual short cake-like appearance. Cakes consist of one fuse attached to several tubes (sometimes hundreds) which fire in sequence, launching a variety of effects into the air, including comets, crossettes, whistles, reports, mines, spinners, and flying fish.

Candle –
short term for roman candle.

Chain Fusing –
a series of two or more aerial shells fused to fire in sequence from a single ignition.

Chemical Composition –
all pyrotechnic and explosive composition contained in a fireworks device. Inert materials (such as clay used for plugs or organic matter used for density) are not considered to be part of chemical composition.

Cherry Bomb –
an old cherry-sized salute filled with explosive flash powder and covered in a red sawdust/glue coating. Banned in the US since 1966.

Chlorates –
a chemical oxidizer that includes potassium chlorate and barium chlorate. The ingredients are sensitive to shock when they encounter sulfur. They are only allowed in some professional displays.

Chrysanthemum –
a dense, spherical burst of tailed stars that retains its shape before fading. This is the most well-known type of firework shell break.

Class B –
obsolete DOT classification for 1.3G display fireworks, though still commonly used amongst those in the fireworks business.

Class C –
obsolete DOT classification for 1.4G consumer fireworks, though still commonly used amongst those in the fireworks business.

Comet –
a type of star that leaves a trail of glittering sparks as it flies through the air.

Commercial Fireworks –
sometimes referred to as display fireworks, these are professional fireworks that are regulated by the ATFE and generally require a special license to buy, store, and use. These fireworks are commonly seen in large displays sponsored by a city or other large organization. Consumer fireworks are not commercial fireworks.

Cone –
a type of fountain in the shape of a cone.

Confetti –
paper streamers in multiple colors that are propelled by a gas cartridge or by a small pyrotechnic charge.

Consumer Fireworks –
fireworks that have been approved by the US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSF). Fireworks that are approved by the CPSC must be able to withstand 350-degree temperatures for two days, must not be able to explode with mechanical shock, are limited to 500 grams of composition, and cannot contain aerial burst that are more than 130 milligrams of flash powder. If the item has not been approved by the CPSC it cannot be classified as consumer fireworks.

Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) –
a federal agency responsible for testing and approving all consumer fireworks. The CPSC website can be found at http://www.cpsc.gov/.

Crackle Effect –
a fireworks effect that sounds like hundreds of snaps or crackles, usually accompanied by an aerial gold lace visual effect.

Crossette –
a type of comet that breaks into multiple comets, usually forming a cross shape or an X shape.

Dahlia –
a burst pattern similar to a peony, but with larger and fewer stars.

Day Time Effect –
a type of firework that can be enjoyed better during the daytime than the nighttime. Includes smoke items and parachute items.

Decomposition –
a chemical process used to convert a compound or mixture into a chemically stable form through a heating process.

Deflagrate –
the term used when the firework explodes. The loud boom heard after the ingredients inside the firework burn or vaporizes.

Detonate –
the explosion heard after any explosion device ignites the compound mixture inside.

Department of Transportation (DOT) –
United States agency that regulates the classification and transportation of fireworks and other explosives. The DOT created the 1.4G classification for consumer fireworks.

Discharge Site –
the area immediately surrounding the fireworks mortars used for an outdoor fireworks display.

Display Fireworks –
fireworks for professional use, also known by the DOT classification 1.3G or ‘ UNO335. Formerly known as “Class B” fireworks.

Display Permit –
the special license or permit required by authorities to legally shoot fireworks at a public viewing area. Additional rules and regulations may be required for public displays where large crowds are gathered.

Display Site –
the immediate area where a fireworks display is conducted, including the discharge site, the fallout area, and the required separation distance from mortars to spectator viewing areas, but not spectator viewing areas or vehicle parking areas.

the abbreviation of the agency known as the Department of Transportation. They are responsible for firework classification. The DOT classification for display fireworks is 1.3G and for consumer fireworks is 1.4G.

Double Peanut –
a rocket whose head is shaped like a peanut produces two breaks.

Dragon Eggs –
clusters of crackling sparks in the air.

Dud –
a firework that fails to ignite.


Electrical Firing Unit –
a device that provides and controls the electric current used to ignite fireworks during a display.

Electrical Firing Unit, Automatic –
a panel or box that operates automatically to provide the source of electric current used to ignite electric matches.

Electrical Firing Unit, Handheld –
a small, handheld unit with manually operated switches that control the flow of electric current to electric matches attached to fireworks devices.

Electrical Firing Unit, Manual –
a panel or box with manually operated switches that control the flow of electric current to electric matches attached to fireworks devices.

Electrical Ignition –
a technique used to ignite fireworks using a source of electric current.

Electric Match –
electrical current used to ignite fireworks is called electric match. Electric current heats the nickel-chromium wire to light the fuse that ignites the firework.

EX Number –
the identification number assigned by DOT to a commercial fireworks device. All legal commercial fireworks must have an EX-number.

Explosive –
any substance or mixture of ingredients that can undergo rapid decomposition when subjected to shock, friction, sparks, or flame.

Explosive Composition –
any chemical compound or mixture, the primary purpose of which is to function by explosion, producing an audible effect.

Fallout Area –
the designated area in which hazardous debris is intended to fall after a pyrotechnic device is fired.

Falling Leaves –
a beautiful aerial effect that consists of glowing embers or stars that tumble slowly in the air, flickering back and forth as they fall back to earth.

Fan –
a firework that shoots multiple shots up at once that burst into a fan shape.

Finale –
the last portion of a firework display. During a finale, the largest, loudest, and most exotic fireworks are ignited in huge quantities and in a short amount of time, creating an intense and beautiful display.

Fire –
to ignite pyrotechnics by using an electric match, electrical current, or some other means.

Firecracker –
a fireworks item containing flash powder and wrapped in paper with a fuse attached when the fuse is lit, it burns down inside the paper until it reaches the flash powder. The deflagration of the flash powder results in a loud bang. Legal consumer firecrackers are limited to a maximum of 50 milligrams of flash powder.

Firefly –
a stroboscopic tail effect consisting of numerous bright flashes of light.

Firework –
a device that functions by combustion to create visible and audible effects for the purpose of entertainment. In the United States fireworks are divided into two groups: those that can be bought by the public (Consumer Fireworks) and those that can only be used by professionals (Display/Professional Fireworks).

Firing Technician –
Individual who ignites fireworks devices at a show.

Fish –
a type of aerial effect that looks like a swarm of glowing objects flying around randomly. The effect is created using small chunks of fast-burning fuse that propel themselves through the air when lit.

Flare –
a cylindrical device with a length of 12’ or longer that is used to light display fireworks.

Flash Powder –
a silvery mixture consisting of powdered aluminum and potassium per chlorate. The mixture is the explosive component in all types of fireworks.

Flitter –
similar to glitter, flitter is a type of star that contains bright flashes of light in the trail the star leaves behind.

Floral Pattern –
an aerial pattern that resembles a flower with points of light that streak outward from the center of the break.

Fountain –
firework that produces upward showers of sparks. Also called gerbs.

Fuse –
an item resembling a string or wire that is used to light a fireworks device.

Fusee – 
a highway distress flare, sometimes used to ignite fireworks at outdoor fireworks displays.


Gerb –
small fountain sometimes used with lance-work set pieces.

Girandola – 
special wheel which rises rapidly in the air while emitting a spray of sparks and, sometimes, a whistle.

Glitter –
a tail effect that contains flashes of light and small explosive bursts lasting several seconds.

Go-Getter –
a star that shoots off in random changing directions.

Ground Item –
ground items are any item that is lit on the ground and does not shoot objects into the sky. This includes fountains, sparklers, snaps, snakes, pops, smoke balls, and other items.

Gun Powder –
see Black Powder.

Hang fire –
a fuse or pyrotechnic ignition composition which continues to glow or burn slowly instead of burning at its normal speed. Such a fuse may suddenly resume burning at its normal rate after a long delay. If the hang fire goes completely out (is extinguished), it is termed a misfire.

Hazardous Debris –
any debris produced or expelled by the functioning of a pyrotechnic device that can cause personal injury or unpredicted property damage.

High Level Fireworks –
devices propelled into the air, usually aerial shells.

High Density Polyethylene: strong plastic pipe commonly used mortars.

Helicopter –
a term used for a device that spins very fast and lifts high into the sky, only to explode or burst into special aerial effects. These are also called planes sky flyers or UFO’s.

Horse Tail –
the shell produces tailed stars that only travel a short distance before falling to the ground, resembling a horse’s tail. Another name for the shell is called a waterfall shell.


Igniter –
Also known as an electric match. A device used for the electrical ignition of fireworks and pyrotechnic articles.

Illegal Explosives –
any salute that contains more than 50 mg of flash powder, such as M-80’s, Cherry Bombs, and Silver Salutes. They are not fireworks. Illegal explosives are extremely dangerous and have caused many injuries.

Instantaneous Fuse –
also known as quick match. Black match that is encased in a loose-fitting paper or plastic sheath to make it burn extremely rapidly. quick match is used for aerial shells and simultaneous ignition of a number of pyrotechnic devices such as lances in a ground display piece.

Jumping Jacks –
similar in appearance to a firecracker, jumping jacks spin rapidly and emit red and green sparks.


Kamuro –
a Japanese reference to long hair, a long burning hanging shell looking like an umbrella or “bowl haircut”.

Labels –
all legal consumer explosives have mandatory labeling requirements. Included on these labels should be the manufacturer’s name and address, cautions, and directions for use.

Ladyfinger –
tiny firecrackers.

Lance –
a pyrotechnic composed tube with a length of 5 inches. Lances are used in set pieces at most display events.

Lift Charge –
charge beneath a shell (usually attached to the bottom of it) consisting of black powder used to propel the device into the sky.

Loader(s) –
an assistant(s) who loads or reloads aerial shells, comets, or mines into mortars.

Low Explosives –
these are explosives that burn at a steady rate and can be more difficult to ignite or detonate. Examples are black powder or consumer 1.4G fireworks.

Low Level Fireworks (Also Ground-to-Air Fireworks) –
Any of a class of fireworks devices that either perform below approximately 200 feet (60 m) or begin their display at ground level and rise to complete their effect. Some examples of low-level fireworks are comets, mines, roman candles, and many consumer fireworks.


M80 –
M80’s are red in color, one and one-half inches long, 5/8 of an inch in diameter, with a green waterproof fuse sticking out the side. It contained two grams of flash powder and was responsible for hundreds of serious injuries due to its powerful blast. These items were banned by the CPSC I 1955 and made illegal by the BATF (now ATFE) in the 1970’s. Legal M80’s today contain 50 milligrams of flash powder, which is about 1/40th of the original M80. Illegal 80’s sometimes contain compositions that are sensitive to shock and can injure or kill people. If you like having full use of your fingers, hands, and eyes, don’t mess with illegal M80’s.

Manual Ignition –
a technique used to ignite fireworks using a handheld ignition source such as a fusee or port fire.

Mine –
an  aerial effect that starts at the ground sending up a column of burning stars and effects into the sky.

Missile –
in fireworks, a missile is a skyrocket that does not have a stick for guidance; instead, it may rotate to give it some stability as it lifts off or may be shot from a tube-like Saturn Missile Batteries.

Monitor – 
The individual at fireworks displays responsible for observing the perimeter of the firing site and ensuring that security personnel or barriers keep spectators at a safe distance. Usually provided by the organization sponsoring the event.

Mortar –
tube from which aerial fireworks such as shells and mines are ejected. Can be made from cardboard, high-density polyethylene, or fiberglass.

Mortar rack –
a wooden or metal form that contains many mortars.

Mortar Trough – 
Above ground structure filled with sand or similar material into which mortars are positioned.

Multi-break –
shell with numerous compartments, each one bursting separately.

Multicolor –
a firework effect containing three or more colors.

Multi-shot aerial –
this is another name for a cake or repeater.

Muzzle Break –
When the shell explodes immediately after leaving the tube or mortar sending the effects all over the ground.

an abbreviation for the National Fire Protection Association. The NFPA is responsible for setting uniform national standards for fireworks use, manufacture, transportation, and storage. NFPA 1122 sets standards for Model Rocketry. NFPA 1123 sets standards for using display fireworks. NFPA 1124 sets standards for manufacturing and transporting fireworks. NFPA 1125 sets standards for manufacturing model rockets. NRFPA 1126 sets standards for the use of proximate (indoor) fireworks. NFPA 1127 sets standards for the hobby of high-power rocketry. The NFPA website is: http:////www.nfpa.org/.

Novelty –
a small firework shaped like an animal, vehicle, or structure. Novelties emit small sprays of sparks, crackles, and whistles and often move around on little wheels.


Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) –
Federal agency that inspects fireworks manufacturing plants. OSHA not only regulates non-fireworks specific aspects of plant safety (i.e. housekeeping, electrical requirements, employee training), but also the fireworks-related standards of NFPA Standard 1124.

Operator –
the person with overall responsibility for the operation and safety of a fireworks display. The operator is also responsible for storing, setting up, and removing pyrotechnic materials or devices after a performance.

Orange book –
the United Nations book on the Classification and Testing of Dangerous Goods.

Palm Tree –
an aerial effect that produces a gold or silver stem as the shell rises into the sky (known as a rising tail); followed by a brocade or willow effect that creates palm fronds. It resembles a gold or silver palm tree in the sky.

Parachute –
a paper projectile that is expelled from a mortar tube either as a single-shot item, or as a multi-shot effect in a cake.

Pearl –
single color star, launched from the ground.

Peony –
flower like display that is round. The stars don’t leave trails as they expand.

Per Chlorates –
used as an oxidizer in the manufacturing process to produce fireworks. Per chlorates are less sensitive to shock, which makes them safer for both professional and public use.

Pyrotechnics Guild International. PGI website is: www.pyrotechniciansguildinternational.com

Pinwheel –
see wheel.

Pistil –
a ball of stars in the center of another ball of stars. Another way to describe this effect is a small peony inside a larger peony.

Placard –
warning symbol of a square-on-point configuration mounted on each side and each end of a truck, rail car, or freight container which informs the public and emergency personnel of the hazardous nature of cargo, as specified in 49 CFR, § 172.

Planes –
a term for a device that spins very fast and lifts high into the sky, only to explode ore burst into a special aerial effect. These are also called helicopters, sky flyers or UFO’s.

Popcorn –
a loud silver spherical shaped display with crackling effect that breaks in huge numbers all at once to fill the display with a sky full of crackling brightness.

Portfire –
a long tube containing slow-burning pyrotechnic composition that is sometimes used to ignite fireworks at outdoor fireworks displays.

Proximate Audience –
an audience that is closer to pyrotechnic devices than allowed by the NFPA 1123, Code for the Outdoor Display of Fireworks.

Proximate Fireworks –
technical name used for indoor fireworks. Typically used under strict regulation in events like concerts or sporting events.

Punk –
a stick of compressed sawdust that burns extremely slow, used for igniting consumer fireworks.

Pyro –
from the Greek work for “fire”, used by itself as a nickname for a fireworks enthusiast.’

Pyrotechnic Device –
any device containing pyrotechnic materials and capable of producing a special effect.

Pyrotechnician –
someone who builds or shoots fireworks.

Pyrotechnic Material –
a chemical mixture used in the entertainment industry to produce visible or audible effects by combustion, deflagration, or detonation.

Pyrotechnic Special Effect –
a special effect created through the use of pyrotechnic materials and devices.

Pyrotechnics –
controlled exothermic chemical reactions that are timed to create the effects of heat, gas, sound, dispersion of aerosols, emission of visible electromagnetic radiation, or a combination of these effects to provide the maximum effect from the least volume.


Quickmatch –
an extremely rapid burning fuse used to ignite multiple fireworks at virtually the same instant.

Rack –
a wooden frame used to hold mortars, or for launching rockets.

Ready Box –
a storage container for aerial devices for use during set-up and display.

Ready Box Tender –
assistant who controls and dispenses the contents of ready box(es) during a fireworks display.

Reloadables/Artillery Shells/Mortars – 
a firework kit that consists of artillery shells and tubes. You must load the shells yourself individually.

Repeater –
sometimes referred to as “cakes” or “multi-shot aerials”, a repeater is a cluster of aerial tubes with a single fuse. The name “cake” was attributed to these because the cluster of tubes looks like a cake in size and shape. Once the fuse is lit, each of the tubes is fired in sequence. Cakes can have a variety of intricate aerial effects, including spinners, fish flower bouquets, comets, crossettes, reports, and other aerial effects. Cakes are the most popular consumer fireworks items outside of sparklers and firecrackers.

Report –
a report is another name for a bang. Items with reports explode with a bang. This term is most often used with rockets and cakes.

Rising Effect –
things such as whistles, stars, crackles, etc. that are released by a shell during its ascent.

Ring Shell –
a shell that produces a ring as its aerial pattern.

Rising Tail –
a gold or silver tail effect that is created when a shell is shot into the sky, like the trunk of a tree. Commonly used with palm tree shells.

Rocket – 
A firework that uses a rocket instead of a lift charge to propel into the air. This includes all bottle & skyrockets.

Rocket Rack –
a frame, normally made of wood, designed to hold multiple rockets ready for ignition, saving time during a display.

Roman Candle –
a paper tube filled with composition that shoots flaming balls out one end of the tube. Most roman candles have five or more balls. Roman candles should never be held in your hand. Instead, they should be planted securely in the ground and pointed away from people and flammable objects.


Salute –
loud report without stars or colors.

Safe and Sane –
consumer fireworks that do not explode or contain aerial effects. Includes: fountains, novelties, smoke devices, sparklers, and snaps.

Safety Cap –
a tube, closed at one end that is placed over the end of the fuse until intended ignition to protect it from damage and accidental ignition.

Salute –
fireworks are designed to produce an explosive sound as its primary effect.

Salute Powder –
a pyrotechnic composition that makes an explosive sound when ignited and constitutes the sole pyrotechnic effect of a salute.

Saturn Missiles –
a firework with a single fuse that shoots up a barrage of whistlers.

Saturn Shell –
the aerial fireworks is like a peony with a ring around a ball of stars.

Screamers – 
a loud, screeching whistle that shoots into the air.

Serpent –
an aerial display of star that spins in the sky and leaves huge amounts of gold, silver, and white light particles. Designed from a small tube made of paper with holes to allow it to spin in flight.

Set Piece –
a ground product that is complicated to manufacture that can cost thousands of dollars. Used in public displays. Examples are the Liberty Bell, the American Flag, and other patriotic symbols. The devices simulate drawing effects in the sky of these symbols after ignition.

Shell –
short term for Aerial Shell.

Silver Salute –
the fireworks product is the M80 firecracker with silver colored paper tube design.

Single Shot Aerial –
a mortar tube with a shell already installed in it. These items generally have a fuse sticking out the side of the mortar at the base of the tube. While these are single shot, one time use items only, these items can produce some spectacular effects.

Site Plan –
sketch or map of the fireworks display site or of the area of a performance using pyrotechnic special effects.

Sky Flyer –
similar names used for this firework are helicopters, UFOs, and planes. Fireworks are capable of spinning fast as it lifts high in the air to explode with special display effects.

Skyrocket –
a pyrotechnic designed out of paper tube with a stick to add flight stability to the product. The rocket can reach the sky in seconds to explode with a loud report or aerial display. Rockets without the stick manufactured into the product are called missiles.

Smoke Item –
any item that produces a smoke effect, including smoke balls and aerial items that produce smoke instead of light or noise. Smoke items are generally used during the daytime.

Snake –
a small black pellet that, when lit, burns slowly to produce a long column of brittle ash that resembles a snake coming out of the ground.

Snaps –
paper balls that are filled with a cap composition that goes BANG when they are thrown at something. Snaps are generally safe for most kids to use.

Sparklers –
similar effect to glitter, same effect as a handheld sparkler except in a firework.

Spinner –
a type of star that spins in the sky and gives off large quantities of white light. Another name for a spinner is tourbillion.

Sponsor –
the organization (person, group, or government agency) that arranges with a duly authorized fireworks supplier for its services in presenting a fireworks display or in providing fireworks for use in a display.

Spotter –
a member of the fireworks display crew (either the operator or an assistant) who observes the firing and bursting of aerial shells and other display fireworks for the purpose of detecting proper mortar angling, noting the occurrence of duds, and observing for other potentially hazardous situations.

Star –
a small pellet of compositions that produces a pyrotechnic effect. Stars are used in aerial shells, rockets, roman candles, cakes, and fountains to produce streaks or light, pulses, long golden tails, and other aerial effects. A single shell could contain several hundred stars.

Strobe –
a strobe is a blinking effect. When used in a shell with hundreds of strobe stars, the strobe effect looks like shimmering water in the sky. Strobes can be a variety of colors, including white, green, blue, and orange.

Supply Tender –
individual at a fireworks display who controls all product. This person ensures that shells are dispersed only as they are needed.

Tail –
a burning trail that follows a star in the sky. Most comets have tails, and so do willow and brocade effects.

Theatrical Pyrotechnics –
Pyrotechnic devices for professional use in the entertainment industry. Similar to consumer fireworks in chemical composition and construction but not intended for consumer use.

Time Rain –
crackle that has a delay to it.

Tourbillion –
another name for a serpent. A tourbillion is a type of star that spins in the sky and gives off large quantities of gold, silver, or white light. These are generally constructed as a small paper tube with holes on each end that allow it to spin.

Tube –
another name for a mortar (see definition for mortar above).


a term for a device that spins very fast and lifts high into sky, only to explode or burst into a special aerial effect. These are also called helicopters, planes, or sky flyers.

Visco –
a slow-burning fuse (usually green) used to make fireworks.


Wave –
a gold/silver willow effect with colored stars streaming through the gold/silver.

Wheel –
a stationary device that spins and creates a circular ring of fire and sparks. These are nailed to a pole or a tree before they are lit. You should always be careful to make sure the area is free from flammable debris before you light a wheel as the sparks can carry ten feet or more.

Whirlwind –
aerial Shell that spins and emits showers of sparks in a spiral shape before bursting in the sky.

Whistle –
high-pitched shriek caused by air rushing through a partly hollow tube.

Wholesale Fireworks –
fireworks are sold by the case. You can save a large percentage by purchasing fireworks by the case.

Willow –
falling trails of sparks. Looks like a Willow tree.

Zipper –
an effect that is achieved when rows of comets or shells are fired rapidly in a back-and-forth motion.

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